The Psychology of Mac versus PC

I picked the article from one of my NLP coach & tutor’s blog. I have been usefully using the LAB profile ever since I had been taught some 9 years ago. It does take plenty of practice to identify fast the chord to strike with the person you are talking to. The youtube advertisings thereon are smashing.

Thank you Shelle Rose Charvet, may you continue your good work.

The Mac versus PC commercials have been playing on television in North America and elsewhere for quite some time. They are very engaging. Many people stop whatever they are doing to watch them. If you have not seen them, check out Mac versus PC on YouTube. They pose a challenge to Microsoft Windows and merchants of PC technology because they clearly and amusingly demonstrate the drawbacks for using a Windows operating system versus the Mac system. But why are they so powerful? What patterns do they use to get and keep your attention?

The commercials feature two characters. One, the PC, is a man in a beige business suit and tie, wearing glasses and an outdated haircut. He is geeky and basically, uncool. The other character, Mac is a youthful good-looking, friendly, and cool guy. Every 30 second commercial focuses on a problem with the PC operating system highlighted while the Mac character stands by, shrugs because he does not suffer from the same issues.

In the early commercials the Mac got to hold the hand of the Sony girl with all of the beautiful accessories while the PC didn’t speak her language. When Microsoft introduced Vista another character appeared. It was Vista security system personified by a menacing man resembling the stereotypical CIA agent who interrupted to ask “confirm or deny” to each statement or action the PC character wanted to make. A more recent one ridicules the introduction of Windows 7 by doing a flashback in time to all the promises to fix problems that PC made with each new version of Windows.

The obvious appeal to the commercials is their whack at Microsoft. Who doesn’t like seeing a giant fall off the beanstalk (unless you are underneath it!)? But there is more to their success at a deeper, below conscious level. If we examine them using psycho-linguistics, the commercials contain language and visual patterns which trigger the motivation of most viewers and this is why they are so successful.

The Language and Behavior Profile (LAB Profile) can explain exactly what attracts so many people to the commercials. My first book, Words That Change Minds describes this tool. The LAB Profile enables you to understand language and visual patterns that affect how people get motivated and what makes them take action. Most people are unaware of these patterns as they operate at a below-conscious level. When a communication such as a television commercial, matches the key patterns of particular target groups, they can have a huge impact on motivating and getting people to do things.

Here are the LAB Profile Patterns at play in the Mac versus PC commercials:

Away From: Language and images used to indicate a problem or situation to be avoided, fixed or solved. Anything that shows something that you want not want is “Away From”. The language and images move away from something. The PC character represents the things people detest about the PC; problems to be avoided!

Options: Any language and images promoting choice, variety, alternatives or breaking the rules. The Mac character represents a “better choice” than the problem-ridden PC and appeals to people who like alternatives.

Procedures: A step by step approach with a clear beginning, middle and end. These commercials are procedural since they have a clear story with this structure. Each one has characters and a plot.

Internal: Internals are people who want to make up their own mind and are difficult to influence.

External: When people become External, outside factors and people have a big impact. They care about what others think of them and may follow the crowd.

Thing: Language and images referring to objects ideas, data… things.

Person: Language and images about people, relationships using their names.

Since these LAB Profile Patterns operate outside normal awareness, they have the power to influence how we think and what we do. The LAB Profile can help you convince people in one-on-one communication and help you reach large groups in mass communication.

In the Mac versus PC commercials the use, (intentional or unintentional) of the above Patterns motivate very distinct groups of people who use computers. Mac users tend to be attracted to the idea that they are different from ordinary mortals. These are the people who like to color outside the lines, and believe they are creative. They want variety and options, alternatives to the plain Jane mainstream technology.

PC users prefer to have a Procedural approach when using their computers. They want a standard step by step procedure when using technology. They want to continue using the procedure they are accustomed to using.(This does not mean that they want this in all areas of their lives, simply when they are using technology.)

Why do the commercials attract both PC and Mac users?

The commercials promote an alternative to the ubiquitous PC, therefore they have an LAB Profile Options quality — attracting people who are likely to already own a Mac (or to have wanted one for a while). This is like speaking to the choir, preaching to the converted. Maybe they will succeed at getting Mac users to buy the latest version. But look at the sales figures. Non Mac users are buying in droves!

According to ResearchCast.com, Mac sales went through the roof in 2008:

  • 50% of Macs sold at Apple retail stores are to those who are first time Mac purchasers
  • Able to achieve 2007 revenue levels in Q1 08- Q3 08
  • Increased US PC share from single digits to 18 percent of unit sales.
  • One out of every 3 dollars spent in US retail computer sales is spent on a Mac
  • 39 percent notebook share in US higher education (higher than Dell)
  • 400,000 visitors a day at Apple retail stores

Techcrunch.com reported in July 2009, 9 out of every 10 personal computers purchased worth over $1000 were Macs.

The secret is partially in the story! Commercials with characters and a plot appeal to the Procedural PC user. When you add in the other elements that make it universal you have the irresistible appeal to action for just about anybody:

Away From: The commercials put a finger on all the issues that drive PC users crazy! Error messages, having to reboot, viruses, unwieldy software….. Yuck!

Person and Thing Patterns: Whether you feel empathy for people or just want the facts; these advertisements are for you.

Internal and External Patterns: The commercials use the “universal close” that makes sales people drool. No one overtly tells you what to do, you draw your own conclusion – that appeals to Internals, and yet it is clear from the commercials that droves of people are converting to Mac, so the Externals are influenced by that.

All this happens in about 30 seconds. Most people are only aware that they just like the ads. And then the sales go up. It is not clear if the creative minds behind the Mac versus PC commercials are knowledgeable about the LAB Profile, but they could be. If you want to find out more about how people get motivated and why they do what they do, check out my books:

Words That Change Minds: Mastering the Language of Influence and my brand new second book:

The Customer is Bothering Me. How to Change Attitudes, Improve Results and Grow the Bottom Line.

Jean Jacques Creve Coeur et la vaccination pour la grippe A H1N1

En novembre 2001, j’ai eu l’occasion de sympathiser avec  Jean Jacques  Crève Cœur lors d’un séminaire de L’APM tenu à Maurice. Peu de temps après, j’avais appris qu’il était parti pour s’établir au Québec, Canada.  Il nous avait émerveillé avec son discours sur ‘le jeux de pouvoir’, sujet qu’il avait beaucoup étudié et recherché.

Qui est Jean Jacques Crève Cœur ?

Physicien, philosophe et pédagogue de formation, Jean-Jacques Crèvecoeur a mené, depuis 1982, des recherches fondamentales sur les phénomènes de pouvoir inter-personnels. Ses recherches l’ont amené à être considéré aujourd’hui comme l’un des meilleurs spécialistes du sujet. Formateur et conférencier de réputation internationale, il est l’auteur de plusieurs ouvrages de référence en la matière, dont “Relations et jeux de pouvoir”, publié aux Editions Jouvence/coll. Equinoxe 21.

Depuis 1989, il forme les cadres supérieurs et les dirigeants suivant une méthode calquée sur la préparation des professionnels de haut niveau, en alliant séminaires de formation, apprentissage par l’expérience et entraînement sur le terrain. Actuellement, il partage son temps entre la formation, l’écriture et la recherche fondamentale…

Et voila en recherchant sur la toile, je retrouve mon cher Jean Jacques Crève Cœur qui s’est trouvé un nouveau cheval de bataille. Il s’élève contre la vaccination pour la grippe A H1N1. Je vous recommande de le voir sur Youtube pour mieux comprendre sa position et si vous êtes convaincus de sa posture : passer à l’action.

Je souhaite à Jean Jacques bon courage dans sa quête.

Etienne Chomé

J’ai trouvé les écrits d’Etienne Chomé sur ‘Tends l’autre joue. Ne rends pas coup sur coup. Mt 5, 38-42’ fort édifiants. Cela ma pris dix minutes de lecture et m’a donne quelques heures de réflexion. Combien de fois ai-je entendu ses paroles : Oeil pour œil et dent pour dent. Et moi je vous dis de ne pas résister au méchant. Au contraire, si quelqu’un te gifle sur la joue droite, tends-lui aussi l’autre. À qui veut te mener devant le juge pour prendre ta tunique, laisse aussi ton manteau. Si quelqu’un te force à faire mille pas, fais-en deux mille avec lui. À qui te demande, donne ; à qui veut t’emprunter, ne tourne pas le dos » (traduction TOB de Mt 5,38-42). Etienne Chomé en fait une lecture à travers son filtre de praxéologique du siècle présent.  Sa conclusion que je reproduis ci-après est à mon avis  extra et donne à réfléchir aux artisans de paix.

Conclusion

L’exégèse en première partie a dégagé le raisonnement suivant : non seulement la justice (œil pour œil), mais même sans répondre à la violence  par la violence. A six reprises, dans les antithèses du SM, Jésus radicalise la loi donnée par Dieu au peuple d’Israël. Le parcours historique a montré que la Tradition s’est toujours plus préoccupée de justifier le raisonnement : oui aux exigences de Jésus en Mt 5,39-42 mais seulement dans tel ou tel sens. Oui à la non-violence mais elle est seulement réalisable par les parfaits catholiques ou les élus de la grâce protestants. Oui mais elle n’est pas à prendre à la lettre car ce n’est pas une loi, c’est une orientation, un idéal hors prise, un conseil ou une révélation d’impuissance, une dynamique, une utopie, une prophétie du Royaume encore à venir, une éthique d’intention, d’intérim, de devenir… Oui mais seulement à titre individuel et interpersonnel, car la non-violence serait de l’irresponsabilité en politique.

Déployées au fil des siècles, ces limitations de la portée du texte évangélique s’abouchent toutes à une compréhension passive de la non-violence. Entre le IVe et le XXe siècles, les multiples interprétations se critiquent entre elles mais sans jamais penser à interroger le postulat sur lequel elles reposent ensemble : la cinquième antithèse du SM nous inviterait à supporter l’injustice et à renoncer à nos droits personnels, par amour de l’ennemi. Comprise en termes d’abnégation et de don sacrificiel de sa vie, la non-violence évangélique a ainsi été élevée au rang d’acte héroïque relevant d’une vocation exceptionnelle. Il y a un revers à la médaille : cette non-résistance ne peut servir de norme en société car face à l’agresseur sans scrupules, la grandeur d’âme ne suffit pas, la faiblesse favorise les abus de pouvoir. Aussi le droit naturel de légitime défense doit-il limiter la portée de Mt 5,38-42, le devoir d’assistance et de protection des victimes doit primer sur le témoignage non-violent, certes exemplaire et prophétique mais nécessairement isolé. Appliqués collectivement, les préceptes de la joue tendue, du manteau laissé et des mille pas mettraient fin à l’État de droit, soit en conduisant la société à l’anarchie, soit en attirant l’envahisseur étranger et le joug de tyrans.

Telle est l’interprétation traditionnelle. Cependant, en contredisant le caractère passif de la non-violence à la base de tout cet édifice, on le transforme de fond en comble. Dans la justice surabondante du Royaume, nous sommes tous frères en Christ, fils et filles d’un même Père. Les versets 39b à 41 de Mt 5 mettent en scène trois situations qui défigurent ce projet de Dieu, trois exemples de domination injuste, tour à tour sociale, économique et politique. À chaque fois, Jésus demande à l’inférieur de refuser la passivité. Il le met par ailleurs en garde de tomber dans le piège de la riposte violente. Celle-ci entraînera une escalade, à moins d’offrir au plus fort l’occasion de renforcer l’ordre établi à son avantage. Jésus invite celui qui subit à prendre une initiative qui met des bâtons dans les roues de l’oppression, sans s’attaquer à l’interlocuteur. Se jouent là quatre opérations distinctes mais qu’il faut faire tenir ensemble :

1) ne pas riposter par la violence, mais 2) briser le rapport de domination, redresser l’injustice objective ET 3) aimer celui qui profite de celle-ci, toucher sa conscience, 4) ne pas démissionner, empêcher l’autre de tirer profit de ses abus de pouvoir et de position. En schéma :

Ni résister par des moyens  violents

Et résister au mal, se battre avec détermination

pour faire tomber

l’injustice

Et aimer l’ennemi

Respecter profondément toutes les personnes impliquées

Ni capituler,  subir pas-sivement

Il s’agit d’apprendre comment disqualifier la loi et le droit du plus fort (colonnes 1 et 4) et comment déployer la force de la loi et du droit (colonne 2), combinée à la force de l’amour (colonne 3).

Dans cette perspective, tendre la joue n’a rien de masochiste. Pour trouver la répartie et mettre en œuvre la parade qui barrent la domination tout en augmentant l’humanité des protagonistes, il faut faire appel au meilleur de notre intelligence et de notre volonté. Accompagner mille pas de plus l’oppresseur est une démarche à la fois saine et sainte, profondément digne de notre humanité et à l’image de notre filiation divine, à la mesure de nos ressources humaines pour gérer nos conflits et à la démesure de l’Amour. Cette non-violence là n’est pas une option individuelle pour vocation isolée et exceptionnelle. Inscrite au cœur de l’Évangile, elle est la norme pour tous. Mt 5,38-42 « est l’habit de tous les jours des citoyens du Royaume de Dieu » (Leonahrd Ragaz). La Tradition est convaincue d’offrir à la non-violence la meilleure part possible en la plaçant sous l’ombre de la croix. Pourtant, le placage d’une spiritualité du martyre sur Mt 5,38-42 l’a gravement desservi : on l’a habillé de l’aube dominicale et de la bure monastique. On a cru l’honorer en l’affublant de l’auréole des grands saints, en fait, on l’a relégué à la sacristie : « Messieurs les évêques, occupez-vous de vos oignons ! » lança l’Amiral de Joubert, chef d’État-major de la Marine, à Mgr Guy Riobé, évêque d’Orléans, dès que se fit plus incisive sa défense des objecteurs de conscience traînés au tribunal en 1973. Comprise de manière passive, la non-violence est désarticulée du devoir de défense : il y a d’un côté l’évangile du pardon allant même jusqu’à accepter l’injustice, de l’autre une défense si nécessaire violente, jugée efficace, responsable et réaliste. Oui à la non-violence évangélique MAIS pas dans toutes les situations. Ainsi, les forces de l’ordre « n’ont pas le droit de tendre la joue ». L’homme d’Église qui l’affirme dans un souci de réalisme politique, fait alors le grand écart avec l’Évangile, qu’il cherche malgré tout à sauver en se réclamant de l’autorité de saint Augustin : faute de pouvoir commander les actes, Mt 5,38-42 oriente les esprits, il reste valable à titre d’inspiration. À vrai dire, cette solution s’évapore à l’heure où il faut se défendre contre l’inique assaillant. En pleine guerre juste, Mt 5,38-42 est prié de se mettre en sourdine et de laisser les gens compétents mener les combats ! L’histoire atteste que la doctrine sur la légitime défense s’est développée non pas tant selon l’Évangile que malgré l’Évangile.

« Soit la résistance armée, soit la non-résistance miséricordieuse » enferme le problème dans un dilemme tronqué. « Et la résistance farouche, capable de mettre hors-jeu les coups de force, et l’amour de l’ennemi, refusant tout moyen qui le détruit » fait sortir de l’impasse. En réarticulant les compétences de justice et celles de l’amour, la non-violence active réconcilie l’esprit et la lettre de Mt 5,38-42. Jésus s’oppose non pas à la légitime défense mais à la violence dans la légitime défense. Entre les deux paradigmes, le débat ne porte pas sur la fin mais sur les moyens de défense : non seulement la finalité de défendre la justice mais même le recours à d’autres moyens que la riposte violente. Bien mieux que l’approche classique, la non-violence active parvient à « ne pas séparer les paroles de la Parole », pour reprendre la belle formule de Tillich. L’adoption du nouveau paradigme entraîne une véritable révolution copernicienne qui abandonne le point de départ apparemment sage et réaliste de la guerre juste, selon lequel la nécessité de contrer l’agression prime sur le témoignage de non-violence évangélique. Le défi est de faire aller de pair la non-violence qui aime l’ennemi (colonne 3) avec la stratégie de contrer les abus de pouvoir d’où qu’ils viennent (colonne 2), sans riposte armée (colonne 1) ni pacifisme irresponsable (colonne 4). Les faucons de la Realpolitik ne sont pas les seuls à pouvoir tenir compte des leçons impitoyables de l’Histoire sur la tragique faiblesse de l’agneau qui aiguise l’appétit du loup.

Un autre point qui reste à mieux prendre en compte dans ce renouvellement théologique est que l’Évangile provoque le changement dans un mouvement de bas en haut. En Mt 5,39b, Jésus s’adresse à l’esclave, en Mt 5,41, à celui dont le pays est asservi et qui est réquisitionné par les forces d’occupation pour porter leurs bagages. Aujourd’hui, que signifie tendre la joue pour le boy burkinabe à Abidjan, laisser son manteau pour le sans-terre brésilien et le chrétien pakistanais, paria intouchable de sa société, faire mille pas pour le Tibétain ?

L’enjeu n’est pas d’abord doctrinal car face aux violences, notre déficit n’est pas tant conceptuel que pratique : les préceptes de ne pas riposter et de tendre la joue sont tout aussi inutilisables à qui se fait agresser, que les principes de natation à celui qui tombe dans l’eau mais qui n’a jamais appris à nager. Leurs échecs n’invalident pas le principe, ils soulignent leur carence d’apprentissage. Aussi vrai que les hommes peuvent rester à la surface de l’eau, ils peuvent déjouer la violence sans eux-mêmes recourir à la violence. Le problème n’est finalement pas d’être d’accord avec le principe non-violent, d’y croire ou non; il est d’apprendre à tendre la joue, d’acquérir une méthode concrète par laquelle cette stratégie donne effectivement de meilleurs résultats que se battre physiquement ou fuir. Les militaires ne sont pas les seuls à avoir besoin d’entraînements et à être capables de grandement progresser! Tendre l’autre joue s’apprend au quotidien et commence à la maison. Un individu comme un peuple peut apprendre à mobiliser ses facultés et ses forces au bon endroit pour déjouer n’importe quel coup de force par le droit ET l’amour. La praticabilité de Mt 5,38-42 se décidera sur le terrain de nos engagements et non dans nos joutes doctrinales.

Notre époque est à la croisée des chemins. Sur les plans domestique et interpersonnel, le développement d’outils de négociation efficace (colonne 2) et de communication vraie (colonne 3) offre une alternative réellement probante à la force du bâton et à toute forme de violences de coercition, dont les menaces et les chantages (colonne 1). Je suis convaincu que c’est le point sur lequel vont faire le plus de progrès les générations qui nous suivent. Les gens du XXIIe siècle qualifieront probablement nos connaissances et nos pratiques en la matière de sous-développées ! Sur les plans étatique et international, depuis trois générations, les pays qui dirigent la planète n’ont plus connu de guerre armée sur leur sol. Ils peuvent ne plus subir le prix de la guerre s’ils payent le prix de la paix. Ils ont les moyens d’empêcher les guerres et de mettre hors-la-loi toute violation humaine, sans laxisme ni impunité (colonne 4). Ils doivent pour ce faire commencer par cesser d’abuser de leur propre pouvoir (colonne 1) et faire respecter les devoirs de justice (colonne 2) ET les droits des personnes (colonne 3).

Ces avancées humaines ouvrent les yeux des hommes de ce temps à une nouvelle lecture de Mt 5,38-42. Ce faisant, en sens inverse, ils découvrent le trésor de ces préceptes évangéliques, trésor enfoui depuis deux mille ans sous la vase des violences de l’Histoire. Après des siècles d’efforts ou de découragement devant une page de la Parole de Dieu apparemment impraticable, ils comprennent mieux en quoi elle peut non seulement « inspirer » mais encore concrètement guider la résolution de leurs conflits à tous les niveaux. Les progrès du temps et des consciences offrent une nouvelle paire de lunettes pour lire l’Évangile. Et en même temps, celui-ci, dès qu’il est traduit dans notre langue, parle et interpelle…

Combien de temps le nouveau paradigme mettra-t-il à renouveler les discours des théologiens et du Magistère ? Sans l’aval de ce dernier, Mt 5,38-42 restera abscons et muet pour des milliers de pasteurs et des millions de « fidèles ». Depuis un demi-siècle, à l’écoute des signes du temps (Mt 16,3), l’Église est en débat pour retravailler ses formulations en matière de « guerre juste ». Un des actuels défis de la théologie est d’articuler à nouveaux frais la non-violence évangélique et la responsabilité sociopolitique d’une défense « efficace ». À distance de tout pacifisme de démission (colonne 4), il me semble important, entre autres tâches, de nommer avec lucidité d’une part les actes qui relèvent de la force légitime (colonne 2), d’autre part ceux qui sont piégés par la violence (colonne 1), aussi juste soit leur cause. Les hommes du XXIe siècle consacreront-ils tous les moyens qui existent pour suffisamment rendre effectifs les premiers et  mettre hors-jeu les seconds ?

L’Esprit de Jésus est à l’œuvre de tout côté. Dans les milieux militants de la non-violence active, certains ont quitté le sérail, déçus par les déclarations magistérielles attachées à l’ancien paradigme. D’autres continuent d’œuvrer pour que le trésor en Mt 5,38-42 devienne, par un accueil concret des chrétiens, « sel de la terre et lumière du monde » (Mt 5,13.14). La lampe de la non-violence authentiquement évangélique « arrive-t-elle pour être mise sous le boisseau ou sous le lit? N’est-ce pas pour être mise sur son support ? Car il n’y a rien de secret qui ne doive être mis au jour, et rien n’a été caché qui ne doive venir au grand jour. Si quelqu’un a des oreilles pour entendre, qu’il entende » (Mc 4,21-23). Mt 5,38-42 est encadré par cette parole (au v. 15) et par la conclusion du SM : « Tout homme qui entend les paroles que je viens de dire et les met en pratique, peut être comparé à un homme avisé qui a bâti sa maison sur le roc » (Mt 7, 24). La parole est aux actes, dans l’assurance que la Parole fait ce qu’elle dit et dit ce qu’elle fait.

Etienne Chomé [1]


[1] Etienne Chomé est marié et père de quatre enfants. Il est membre de la Communauté du Chemin Neuf. Auteur d’une méthode novatrice qui articule une communication vraie et une négociation efficace pour mieux gérer nos conflits, il est le fondateur et le responsable de l’Ecole Internationale CommunicActions. Il est consultant en entreprises et professeur à l’Institut International  Lumen Vitae à Bruxelles. S’appuyant sur ses Maîtrises en sciences sociales et politiques, en philosophie et en théologie, il travaille à un doctorat sur les jeux de pouvoir.

Reflexion Dominicale

Evangile de Jésus-Christ selon saint Luc 21,25-28.34-36.
Jésus parlait à ses disciples de sa venue : « Il y aura des signes dans le soleil, la lune et les étoiles. Sur terre, les nations seront affolées par le fracas de la mer et de la tempête.
Les hommes mourront de peur dans la crainte des malheurs arrivant sur le monde, car les puissances des cieux seront ébranlées.
Alors, on verra le Fils de l’homme venir dans la nuée, avec grande puissance et grande gloire.
Quand ces événements commenceront, redressez-vous et relevez la tête, car votre rédemption approche. »
Tenez-vous sur vos gardes, de crainte que votre cœur ne s’alourdisse dans la débauche, l’ivrognerie et les soucis de la vie, et que ce jour-là ne tombe sur vous à l’improviste.
Comme un filet, il s’abattra sur tous les hommes de la terre.
Restez éveillés et priez en tout temps : ainsi vous serez jugés dignes d’échapper à tout ce qui doit arriver, et de paraître debout devant le Fils de l’homme. »

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Nous sommes en marche vers un évènement extraordinaire qui n’est que la venue du Christ notre Messie et Sauveur. Lors du premier avènement, il se fit homme à cause de l’homme, par amour. Le second avènement a lieu tous les jours, souvent et en mainte occasion, dans chaque cœur qui aime, accompagné de nouvelles grâces et de nouveaux dons, selon la capacité de chacun. Dans le troisième avènement, l’on considère celui qui aura lieu le jour du Jugement ou à l’heure de la mort…

Nous connaissons la deuxième venue 2000 mille ans de cela, et avons les récits de Son parcours terrestre et Ses enseignements.

Ce passage évoque en moi, un passage du temps fini vers l’infini : une comparution devant le Fils de l’homme. Et oui, à ma mort, la nature que je connais passera, tout sera ébranlé. Le Seigneur me demande d’être conscient pour que ce jour ne tombe pas sur moi à l’improviste, de rester sur mes gardes, de veiller et prier que je ne sois pas dans la débauche, l’ivrognerie et les soucis de la vie.

Comme tout vient de Toi, Donne moi, Seigneur à cette heure la, la grâce de comparaitre devant de Toi, digne, redresser et la tête relevée. Pour ma part, malgré ma faiblesse je tacherai   d’être digne en tout temps.

Listening from Keith Ferrazzi

Have you ever been taught to listen?

Many of us are of opinion that ‘Listening’ is a natural process. Hearing may well be the natural process and it is one of the five senses endowed to humans.  Active Listening could be understood as listening for meaning.

I picked up an extract from the book of Keith Ferrazzi ‘WHO’S GOT YOUR BACK’ which I cherish.

The Four R’s of Listening

Much of successful sparring is really about listening. (Most people are better talkers than they are listeners.)  Dr. Mark Goulston, a hostage negotiator and author, describes the way we listen in four different ways, which he calls the Four R’s: removed, reactive, responsible and receptive.

• Removed listening is the kind of listening you do when you’re actually engaged in something else, like using your BlackBerry.

• Reactive listening is when you’re being somewhat more attentive.

• Responsible listening takes place when you not only react to what is said but reply with a further action or elaboration.

• Receptive listening is the deepest form of listening. This is the level of listening we all want to achieve in sparring.  ~

Leadershift by Emmanuel Gobillot

I have retained the following from the book: LEADERSHIFT Reinventing Leadership for the Age of 
Mass Collaboration by Emmanuel Gobillot which I would like to share with you. 
As I am a great fan of Saint-Exupéry no wonder that the stuff hooked me. 
My blog allows me to keep my learning in an orderly manner, easy to sort and find when necessary.

Beyond Leadership

The trends are changing the way organizations create. The new units of analysis are not organizations (in the sense of structurally organized), but rather companies (as in groups of companions). Does that mean that leadership will be irrelevant? Are we going toward some anarchical, communal days where no one is in charge (with the associated chaos we have all been taught to fear anarchy leads to)? Well, the way we have led might be irrelevant but this is not true of leadership altogether. We are living beyond the days of leadership.

LEADERSHIFT

“Leadershift” is about facilitating a community’s engagement need. It is that new “leadershift” modus operandi that is defined as:

A type of leadership, non-hierarchical in form, that facilitates the collaboration of a self-selected group, of which the leader is an integral part, in the generation of a narrative that builds and sustains a valuable and co-created outcome.

Blurring the Boundaries

Where “leadershift” differs from leadership is in its search for a truly dynamic, social and co-created form of leadership. This is leadership that blurs the boundaries between leader and follower and places the importance of culture facilitation over that of strategy articulation as the central focus of its efforts.

“Leadershift” actions and behaviors are only legitimate in so far as they are mandated by the community itself. To make a call because no one else can make it is only directive if the community never recognized you as being able to make the call. When the community asks you to arbitrate its decisions, a directive style becomes a helpful style.

Leadership vs. ‘Leadershift’

In “leadershift,” reputation rather than position makes the leader. What creates a reputation is the commitment the leader has shown to the community rather than the effectiveness by which they have made it work for their benefit. That kind of power is interdependent. The leader is only as strong as the community and the community becomes stronger through the actions of its leader. The difference between current organizational positional power and this communal, social power is that both parties need to agree and have the ability to review the contract.

SHIFT 1 — FROM CLARITY TO SIMPLICITY

Simplicity is about realigning participants’ intellectual and emotional outlooks. It is a combination of two elements: simplification and coherence.

A leader must learn to distinguish between what matters and what doesn’t to the engagement of a community. Our simplification reflexes have become so sharp that, in our search for efficiency, we risk eradicating some important elements of the community’s strength.

We have all witnessed how changes in processes and structure (even if as a result these are becoming simpler) tend to decrease, rather than increase, levels of understanding. We have all seen employees trying to figure out who and what matters once a new structure is announced. So, while the simplification process is a worthwhile thing to do, it is not the only thing that matters to increasing engagement. What we ignore when we put our focus solely on simplification is the interplay between simplification and our second element of simplicity — coherence.

Coherence

Coherence is the ability to highlight the interdependence of a system (e.g. a car is a complicated system of parts, but a coherent mode of transport).

The role of the leader must be to deploy strategies that can help bring different elements together to build a coherent whole. The leader becomes a primary agent in helping the community stage discussions on what it stands for. The role of leadership is to help communities articulate the problem they are looking to solve.

What is important to us, as leaders, is not only that people choose our network to invest their time, money and efforts, but that they do so in a way that is beneficial to the organization. We call it alignment. Without it we fear that, instead of getting people involved in a concerted co-creation effort focused in one direction, we may end up with a multitude of unfocused, wasted enthusiasm.

SHIFT 2 — FROM PLANS TO NARRATIVES

If simplicity is about generating the energy that propels a community forward, then narrative is the vector that helps that community move on a coherent path. A narrative helps that community in two ways. First, it clarifies the role of mass collaboration in a business, and second it helps participants align their actions to the delivery of value.

The second building block to any organizational effort, after engagement, is alignment. Leaders must answer two critical questions:

• How do I ensure that community members understand their involvement in the social process (i.e. how do they best contribute)?

• How do I make sure that people stay aligned behind the mission?

Both of these are normally answered with a plan. But as plans will invariably become obsolete in the face of change, it is better to have a community able to make sense of the evolving environment and respond appropriately to changes. This is achieved through narrative environments that enable free exploration of options while retaining an intact notion of the overall mission.

The role of the leader is to facilitate the narrative — helping participants and the community define who they are, what they aspire to and how they hope to get there.

Tone

The role of the leader is not to design plans, but to help the organization construct a narrative by nurturing the narrative environment. It sounds a bit more woolly but it’s much more effective. Nurturing a narrative environment is about helping the organization acquire a tone.

The tone of the organization is the type of story it will tell. Is the story of your department, your function, your organization one of conflict or is it a story of change and cooperation? To nurture a tone forces a leader to understand the key moments in organizational life and frame these in a way that clarifies their significance.

SHIFT 3 — FROM ROLES TO TASKS

It is not for leaders to struggle to reconcile the conflict between the organizational role and the individual’s self-image. What the leader is there to do is facilitate the creation of coherence by letting community members create that logic for themselves while reinforcing the need of the community. The best way to do this is to focus on clear task definition.

At this stage in the argument we should have already secured both the engagement and the alignment of any member of the community. We have the simplicity and the narrative we need to transform the organization in a company. Tasks are the critical incidents that move the narrative along. Of course, there is no denying that the organization needs roles; after all, roles are its foundations. However, the reinforcement of the social roles of individuals born out of their self-image can only be accomplished through tasks. Therefore, it is a change of emphasis in a leader’s dialogue that needs to take place.

When tasks are well defined, time bound and necessary, they form the words in the company’s narrative.

Two Types of Tasks

The fact is that in order to fulfill their self-image, people will choose to complete tasks that make the community sustainable. Some of these will be what we may want to call accountability tasks (i.e. going to the immediate fulfillment of the organizational purpose) while others might be best described as maintenance tasks (i.e. tasks that are contributory to the fulfillment of accountability tasks).

It is crucial to understand that, in mass collaboration, the leader’s time is better spent helping individuals find the opportunities to reinforce their self-image while preventing the organizational roles derailing their strengths. The reality is that no one who truly loves what they do will ever reject the accountabilities necessary for their commitment to the company’s success and sustainability.

SHIFT 4 — FROM MONEY TO LOVE

When leaders ask for commitment, what they are asking for is devotion to the organization. They look for people who will join the organization with the aim of staying and caring enough about it to ensure that their contribution is maximized.

Commitment is about putting the organization first. In practice, it means staying as long and working as hard as is needed for a task to be accomplished. It means showing flexibility to take any extra steps, whether planned or not, to ensure expectations are exceeded. Underlying these demands are two distinct ideas that define commitment.

Showing Dedication

The first is that commitment is about making a pledge to conduct a specific undertaking. Being committed, whether in our private or in our work lives, is about showing dedication. To be real, a commitment needs to be made.

The second idea underpinning the notion of commitment is the idea of obligation. A commitment is a felt obligation to do something irrespective of how much we may want to do something else. This is a critical idea as it leads to the sustainability of the relationship and highlights the fact that commitment and engagement go hand in hand. For commitment to exist, both parties have to willingly relinquish some of their freedom to act.

Commitment Cannot Be Bought

To secure commitment, leaders must look at their organizations through two new, non-financial lenses.

The first lens is to realize that both parties involved in the relationship have to love what they do. To be successful the organization needs all involved to embrace their tasks and identify themselves with the narrative.

The second lens is that a social, rather than economic, incentive can be created by focusing on the community rather than the individual. What matters to the functioning of our communities is not what motivates individuals but rather that they direct that motivation to making the community stronger.

LOVE ENTERS THE CORPORATE CONSCIOUSNESS

In the late ’90s, Daniel Goleman published a book that would popularize the term “emotional intelligence.” The basic premise of emotional intelligence is that to be successful, leaders need to both understand and manage their emotions so as not to derail their intent.

In 2002, Tim Sanders released his first book, boldly titled Love Is the Killer App. In it, he argues that business success depends on three key factors: knowledge, networking and compassion. He goes on to show how, by becoming “lovecats” (sharing knowledge, becoming a business matchmaker and building people up), anyone can achieve the impossible.

The year 2005 gave us “Lovemarks,” the new marketing technique introduced to the world by charismatic Worldwide CEO of Saatchi & Saatchi, Kevin Roberts. Following Sanders’ example, he introduced another three-dimensional model, suggesting that by using Mystery (i.e. great inspiring stories), Sensuality (appealing to all the senses) and Intimacy (showing empathy and passion) organizations can do something that fads and brands can never sustain — command both respect and love.

THE ELVIS FALLACY

In 2002, Junkie XL remixed a song first recorded by Elvis Presley in 1968 and used in one of his movies, Live a Little, Love a Little. The single went straight to No.1 in more than 20 countries. “A Little Less Conversation” became an anthem that was used in the soundtracks of movies from Bruce Almighty to Ocean’s 13.

It also became a favorite line for journalists and commentators to use every time they were dissatisfied. Politicians of all persuasions were asked for “a little less conversation and a little more action.” Executives spanning the entire economic spectrum from the health to the financial sectors were directed to have “a little less conversation and take a little more action.”

But if journalists saw the resurgence of the song as an opportunity to capitalize temporarily on its popularity, business leaders should have recognized it as the best articulation of one of their most entrenched and mistaken beliefs — actions speak louder than words.

Social Engagement Is Not a Sequential Process

That executives have harbored that belief is not surprising — transactional involvement is built on actions. Create clarity, communicate a plan, hold people accountable and reward appropriate outcomes. The sequential nature of the process reinforces the belief that doing something to others is the one sure way to succeed. On the other hand, social engagement, as we have seen, is not a sequential process.

Simplicity, narratives, tasks and love reinforce each other. So, at the very least, the “doing” part of leadership needs to be more complex, more refined, more interconnected and more holistic. But the fallacy that organizations suffer from a “little too much conversation and not enough action syndrome” does not simply rest on misguided beliefs about the type of actions to take. It is born out of a failure to accept that words and actions are, in fact, intrinsically linked. There are two important aspects to this.

Words Predict Actions

The first is that words can pretty much predict the nature of the actions to be taken.

We know that our moods are contagious. We can feel how the atmosphere in our workplace changes as the mood changes. This happens because of the words we use and the attitudes we display. Clearly, our words and our actions, and, by extension, the actions of others, are not disconnected in the way conventional managerial wisdom would have it. Words speak at least as loudly as actions.

The second element we need to consider in order to put the fallacy to rest is our belief that actions and conversations exist on two separate continua. The fact

is that there cannot be efficient actions without effective conversations.

Breaking the “Elvis Fallacy” requires us to start by valuing what we have and, together, imagining and designing what we are imaginative enough to envisage.

Simplicity, Narratives, Tasks and Love

There are four steps that will prove crucial in developing the strengths and resilience leaders will need to foster simplicity, narratives, tasks and love in their organizations.

The first is to learn to do nothing. The focus of “leadershift” is not on what to start or do but rather what to stop.

The second step is to contribute to the narrative. Narrative ownership is distributed through the system rather than owned by the leader, so while it is legitimate (and recommended) for the leader to contribute, that contribution is in no way superior to the contribution of others (unless made as a result of a demand on the leader by the community).

The third is to build personal reputation. To be able to navigate through the mass collaboration effort, leaders need to have a solid reputation. While reputation is underpinned by an individual’s behavior and capabilities, it is ultimately accorded by community members.

Finally, the last step is learn to love what you do. If we refocus away from role to task and learn to embrace our strengths and passions rather than our measured contribution it is likely that we will find more energy.

CONCLUDING THOUGHTS

In his book Wind, Sand and Stars, author Antoine de Saint-Exupéry wrote, “What saves a man is to take a step. Then another step. It is always the same step, but you have to take it.”

The DEAD trends do not, in any way, diminish our yearning for leadership. We want to follow. We want to be inspired. We want to be led. This is not because we are weak or paralyzed by fear, nor because of some deficiency that leaders need to fix. Instead, it is because we want someone to typify the changes we wish to make. We want someone to be the figurehead of a movement we want to drive.

The ultimate leadership challenge is not the erosion of the powers and tools thrust upon us by a turbulent environment. It is our ability to take Saint-Exupéry’s first step. We cannot second-guess the future. There is no point looking for a truth that will answer all our concerns. It is not out there. Our job as leaders is to take the first step, without trying to second-guess or fearing what might lie ahead. Our future lies in our ability to march proudly into the future, at some times leaders and at others followers, working together, building on each others’ strengths.

Panelists from The Churchill Club on China 2010

Robin Chan – Robin Chan is the Founder and CEO of XPD Media Inc. Venture backed with offices in Beijing and Silicon Valley, XPD is building next generation entertainment platforms.

Previously, Chan was Director of Social Media at Verizon, where he was responsible for multiplatform strategy and business unit expansion. He led business development partnerships for video, social networks, gaming, and virtual worlds.

Linda Chen – Linda Chen is a partner at KPMG.

Jacob Hsu – Mr. Hsu joined Symbio in 1998 and has been instrumental in expanding the company from 40 engineers to over 1000 today. While at Symbio, Mr. Hsu has been involved in all facets of growing the company, having previously served as President, COO, CMO, and having led Symbio’s North American and Japan operations.

Mr. Hsu also guided the development of the Symbio Software Institutes in China, and was one of the founders of Symbio Digital Entertainment, today one of China’s leading game outsourcing companies. Prior to joining Symbio, he was the CEO of Trilogica Technologies, a data aggregation software company, and CEO of Epitome Software, an IT Services Company focused on financial services.

He began his career as an investment banker focused on mergers & acquisitions at Fox-Pitt, Kelton. Named by Chief Executive magazine as one of the world’s Top 12 Young Global Leaders of Tomorrow in 2008, Mr. Hsu is a graduate of Wharton School of Business.

Harry Shum – Former managing director of Microsoft Research Asia, Dr. Harry Shum, a Corporate Vice President at Microsoft now, has taken the new role of leading the Core Search Development of Microsoft.

Dr. Shum is an Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) Fellow and an Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) Fellow. He serves on the editorial board of the International Journal of Computer Vision, and is a Program Chair of the International Conference of Computer Vision (ICCV) 2007.

Dr. Shum has published more than 100 papers in computer vision, computer graphics, pattern recognition, statistical learning, and robotics. He holds more than 50 U.S. patents.

Lip-Bu Tan – Lip-Bu Tan is President and Chief Executive Officer of Cadence Design Systems, Inc. He has been a member of the Cadence Board of Directors since 2004 and serves as a member of the Finance and Technology Committees of the Board.

He also serves as chairman of Walden International, a venture capital firm he founded in 1987. Prior to founding Walden, Tan was Vice President at Chappell & Co. and held management positions at EDS Nuclear and ECHO Energy.

Karen Tucker – Karen Tucker is chief executive of The Churchill Club.

Previously, she served for more than eight years as a senior executive at the Computer History Museum.

Paul Romer

Paul Romer’s most important work is in the field of economic growth. Economists studied long-run growth extensively during the 1950s and 1960s.

Romer is credited with the witty quote, “A crisis is a terrible thing to waste.” This quote became a sounding horn by economists and consultants looking to make a positive take away from the economic downturn of 2007-2009.

His dominant theme

“Economic growth occurs whenever people take resources and rearrange them in ways that are more valuable. A useful metaphor for production in an economy comes from the kitchen. To create valuable final products, we mix inexpensive ingredients together according to a recipe. The cooking one can do is limited by the supply of ingredients, and most cooking in the economy produces undesirable side effects. If economic growth could be achieved only by doing more and more of the same kind of cooking, we would eventually run out of raw materials and suffer from unacceptable levels of pollution and nuisance. History teaches us, however, that economic growth springs from better recipes, not just from more cooking. New recipes generally produce fewer unpleasant side effects and generate more economic value per unit of raw material.

Every generation has perceived the limits to growth that finite resources and undesirable side effects would pose if no new recipes or ideas were discovered. And every generation has underestimated the potential for finding new recipes and ideas. We consistently fail to grasp how many ideas remain to be discovered. Possibilities do not add up.

I had much pleasure listening to Paul Romer for a solid hour on FORA.tv. I really enjoy the positive views he has of the future in his New Growth Theory which gives me the necessary boost to the negativity that comes out of the present media.

The presentation was introduced with the following comments:  Paul Romer is an economist who gets invoked a lot, and the reasons are that he is the primary founder and formulator of what is called New Growth Theory, and New Growth Theory was a formal and persuasive way to make sure that economic growth realizes the economic understanding realizes the power of ideas. So always talking about resources and various economic balances and so on. But ideas in their own right are a powerful source of the creation of wealth. For a while now, I guess a couple of years, he has been working up on a new formulation, which is modestly calling a theory of history and this is the launch of that, there will be a series of presentations that he will be making, putting this idea forth and putting it into application. So please welcome the first look at that set of ideas from Paul Romer.

Le Bestiaire

Sans doute un peu caricatural, je trouve que la définition que m’a apporté   Jean Louis Fel dans un séminaire donne bien les comportements que nous pouvons trouver dan s une équipe. Les 9 types de comportements sont tres bien identifies et illustres.

Jean Louis Fel, s est adresse au manager en devenir!

Manager

Les différents comportements dans une équipe

Le Bestiaire

antelope

L’ANTILOPE

Le timide

Il n’est pas à l’aise et reste muet. Il attend que cela se passe ou qu’on l’interroge.

boxer

LE BOXER

Le bagarreur

Il se plaint et aime titiller les autres. Il est en train de perdre son temps… Il n’y a que lui qui fait des efforts.

cheval

LE CHEVAL

Le sage

Le chic type, toujours prêt à vous aider, sûr de lui, convaincu. Il sait relativiser et se fonde sur du concret. Recentre la discussion sur les objectifs.

grenouille

LA GRENOUILLE

Le bavard

Il n’arrête pas de parler et de sortir du sujet. Il est intarissable.

giraffe

LA GIRAFE

Le grand seigneur

Il ne veut rien apprendre des autres. Il se veut leader. Lui, il a raison. C’est ainsi et pas autrement !

herisson

LE HÉRISSON

Lui, il est contre

Il aime discutailler, s’oppose pour le plaisir, souvent en désaccord avec ce qui se dit

hippo

L’HIPPOPOTAME

Le roupilleur

Il ne se sent pas concerné par le sujet ou l’objectif présenté par le groupe.

Il ne s’intéresse à rien et attend que cela se passe.

renard

LE RENARD

Le rusé

Il cherche souvent à embarrasser l’animateur.

Il reste sceptique, pose plus de questions qu’il ne donne de réponse.

singe

LE SINGE

Lui, il sait tout

Il veut imposer son opinion à tous. Il est bavard mais souvent bien informé.

A dix solutions pour chaque problème.

The Power of BELIEFS CHANGE

BELIEFS

We common say that: only ‘change’ is constant. However you know as much as I do how difficult it is to cope with change. More importantly to get your colleagues to change to live up with the ever-changing environment is the greatest challenge of most entrepreneurs and managers.

Reading the book written ‘BELIEFS  Pathways to health & wellbeing’ by Robert Dilts & two of my NLP tutors: Tim & Suzi  help me much to understand the concept of   ‘change’ and  gave me some practical tools to achieve ‘changes’ in me and others.

I have since an e-copy of the book and would be glad to share it with you. Read below an extract of the introduction to the book. You might be interested to know that Robert Dilts cured her mother’s breast cancer, which had reached a degree of metastasis, by changing her beliefs.

Would you now invest some time to document yourself on the power of ‘Change’?

My sincere wish is to make know this method of ‘BELIEFS CHANGE’ to attempt to alleviate the pains of the drug addicted population of our nation.

Change is a multilevel process . . .

We make changes in our environment;

Changes in our behaviors through which we interact with our environment;

Changes in our capabilities and the strategies by which we direct and guide our behavior;

Changes in our beliefs and value systems by which we motivate and reinforce our guidance systems and maps;

Changes in our identity of which we select the values and beliefs we live by;

Changes in our relationship to those things which are bigger than us, those things that most people would call the spiritual.

This book is about gaining more choices at a particular level of change—the level of beliefs. The purpose of this book is to provide conceptual and interactive tools necessary to understand and gain more choices within the belief systems that guide our behavior in the world around us.

I first began exploring the processes involved in changing beliefs in earnest when my mother had a recurrence of breast cancer in 1982 with a fairly wide degree of metastasis and a poor prognosis for recovery. It was in helping her on her dramatic and heroic road to recovery, elements of which are described in this book, that I became intimately associated with the effects of beliefs in relationship to a person’s health and in relationship to the other levels of

change involved in making complete and lasting behavioural change.

The first “Beliefs and Health” workshop was conducted in December, 1984. Most of the concepts and techniques described in this book are a result of that program, the

programs that have followed, and also of the work that I have done with particular individuals who were engaged in both life threatening and life transforming changes. While

the roots for the concepts and techniques presented in this book have reached widely and deeply, it draws most heavily on the principles and techniques of NeuroLinguistic Programming. The sources for the material in the book are primarily advanced NLP seminars in which the issue of

beliefs was being presented and dealt with as an advanced level skill.

The book is written in such a way that you can associate into being a participant in an actual workshop. Imagine that you are there, watching the demonstrations, listening

to the questions and answers, and participating in the discussions and exercises.

The primary purpose of the book is to provide the “how to’s” of belief change—although I hope you, as a reader, will find inspiration as well, within the concepts and examples

of the people that make up this book. I should also point out that this is such a rapidly

developing area in NLP that we already have enough updates and new techniques to fill a second volume. Thus I recommend that you approach this book as a way of expanding

your own beliefs about the possibilities and methods involved in the process of lasting change, as opposed to a simple description of techniques or procedures.